ICOMOS 2017《遺產與民主精神-德里宣言》

翻譯:李兆翔  審訂:閻亞寧、傅朝卿


This Declaration reflects a commitment by ICOMOS to Heritage and Democracy as key ingredients in a people-based approach to sustainable development. Heritage is a fundamental right and responsibility of all. It is a starting point for a meaningful and equitable future that secures and celebrates diversity, social engagement, equality and justice for all cultures.


Acknowledging that heritage constitutes a key resource in enhancing quality of life and social cohesion, fostering economic development in a fast-changing global environment,
體認 遺產是一項基本人權,
Recognising heritage as a fundamental human right,

理解 民主精神賦予國家、社群和個人權利與義務,
Considering that democracy gives both rights and duties to individuals, communities and nations,

進一步理解 相互尊重、多樣性、多元性、融合以及和平共處的迫切性;並理解所有各自具有其獨特遺產之文化,在實踐個別信念和維護多元文化遺產上的權利,

體認 世界許多地方的遺產,由於衰敗、消逝、抹滅或粗劣對待,日益遭受威脅,此舉將使個人、群體和國家作為人類的一個整體一事陷入困境,
Recognising that heritage is increasingly threatened in many parts of the world by deterioration, disappearance, erasure or poor treatment, which impoverishes individuals, groups, nations and humankind as a whole,

意識到 由於氣候變遷,海平面上升,蓄意破壞和武裝衝突所帶來的額外威脅,並體認遺產防災,減災和增強回復力的需求,
Realising the additional threats caused by climate change, rising sea levels, deliberate destruction and armed conflicts; and recognizing the need for risk preparedness, disaster mitigation and increased resilience,

考量到 人口遷徙和人口增長的現實狀況,
Taking into account the reality of human migration and population growth,

尊重 在由貢獻於一個地方遺產整體的創造之多種多樣社群所居住的各種地理區域中,一個以人為本的文化專業趨向,
Respecting a people-centric culture-specific approach in various geographical regions inhabited by a multitude of diverse communities who have contributed to the creation of the composite heritage of a place,

體認 數位科技和通訊傳播服務,在當前遺產管理中所扮演的角色,
Recognising the role that digital technologies and communications now play in heritage management,

重申 以現有與遺產相關的國際公約,建議文和其他文件等,作為理解和處置的依據,
Recalling the existing international conventions, recommendations and other documents concerning heritage as a basis for understanding and treatment,
強調 透過社群發展的過程,將遺產專業知能與多學科協力納入決策一部分的必要性。
Emphasizing the need for professional heritage expertise and multidisciplinary cooperation as an integral part of policy-making throughout the community-development processes.

On behalf of the peoples we serve, ICOMOS addresses the UN, UNESCO and other relevant international bodies, all levels of government and authorities in individual countries, institutions for education and research, non-governmental organisations and, in particular, individuals and groups of people at the local level, as well as all other stakeholders:

Manage heritage resources for our common future : Values, significance and authenticity

The concept of heritage has widened considerably from monuments, groups of buildings and sites to also include settings, larger and more complex areas and landscapes and their intangible dimensions. This reflects a more diverse approach. Heritage belongs to all people; men, women, and children; indigenous people; ethnic groups; people of different belief systems; and minority groups. It is evident in places ancient to modern; rural and urban; the small, everyday and utilitarian; as well as the monumental and elite. It includes value systems, beliefs, traditions and lifestyles, together with uses, customs, practices and traditional knowledge. There are associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects. This is a more people-centred approach.

Heritage should be managed in accordance with significance. Integrity and authenticity must be considered in the management of cultural assets.

Mutual understanding and tolerance of diverse cultural expressions add to quality of life and social cohesion. They provide an opportunity for learning, impartial interaction and active engagement, and have the potential to reinforce community bonds and reduce conflicts.

The heritage and dynamics of historic places are primary resources for attracting creative industries, businesses, inhabitants and visitors, and an environment for economic growth and prosperity.

Legislative protection of heritage is the responsibility of all levels of government. This should respect connections between communities and place; functional continuities; and include conservation objectives in development initiatives. Heritage management and planning regulations require transparent systems for informing stakeholders, assessing and balancing potentially conflicting views and interests.

Develop ethical principles and education for heritage: Guidance, informed decisions and practices

Ethical principles should be established to guide heritage conservation and management. This includes interpretation, adaptation, intervention, and sustaining complex heritage systems and places, and should engage the local communities and consider the historic layers that contribute to the evolution of the place.

Intellectual and physical access to heritage resources empowers people to safeguard it. Traditional knowledge and professional expertise constitute important resources for communities, adding to the understanding of values, sense of place, and awareness.

Specialised education is necessary for each heritage discipline and should not be reduced to a generalist approach. An understanding of cultural diversity is essential in heritage education and training programmes at all levels – professionals and artisans; adults and children.

各級政府有責任於指認、評估和記錄遺產場所,並推廣大眾對其重大意義的認識。對傳統知識和實證文獻的連結,是執行這個趨向的基礎。 政府、機構和利益群體,應當善用廣泛的傳播科技和媒介,收集、分享和普及相關數據。
All levels of government have a responsibility to identify, assess and document heritage places, and to promote awareness of their significance. Access to traditional knowledge and evidence-based documentation is fundamental to this approach. A wide range of communication technologies and media should be utilized by governments, institutions and interested communities for collecting, sharing and disseminating data.

Promote inclusive democratic community processes: Of all the people, by all the people, for all the people

Heritage is a non-renewable resource. Heritage is often shared between neighbouring countries and larger regions and/or is a reflection and amalgamation of cultural influences across the world.
Community participation in planning the integration of traditional knowledge and intercultural dialogue in collaborative decision-making facilitates well-reasoned solutions and good use of resources reflecting the four pillars of sustainability.

Cultural identities should not be compromised by uniform and insensitive planning. The protection and sustenance of heritage resources should be the basis of development policies and planning programmes, integrating heritage-conservation strategies within the larger goals of sustainable development. Specific guidance is necessary to ensure the harmonious insertion of contemporary interventions into heritage settings.

Ensure continuity of living heritage: A condition of sustainable development

There is a close relationship between nature, culture and people. Cultural places and landscapes, along with communities, traditional systems and beliefs, constitute living heritage and cultural identity.

Appropriate conservation and management of living heritage is achievable through intergenerational transfer of knowledge and skills in cooperation with communities and facilitated by multidisciplinary expertise.

Traditional building methods and community structures have inherent sustainability that has been tested and shaped over time. Historic settlements tend to use limited resources efficiently; favour interaction and solidarity; and secure cultural continuity.

The responsibility for safeguarding heritage extends between nations and cultures. Intentional destruction which aims to erase cultural identity is a breach of fundamental human rights. Cultural recovery is vital to regaining dignity. Solidarity and support should be extended to cultures, countries and communities in need.

Recognition and support must be given to those persons who embody cultural knowledge and skills for there to be long-term perpetuation of living heritage.

It is our duty to conserve the significance of the multicultural, multidimensional heritage we have inherited and hand it down to following generations. Engaging and training new generations in the understanding and protection of the inherited values of our living and shared heritage sustains the plural legacies of the past.